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107 posts tagged Ai

Artificial intelligence program that learns like a child
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Artificial intelligence programs may already be capable of specialized tasks like flying planes, winning Jeopardy, and giving you a hard time in your favorite video games, but even the most advanced offerings are no smarter than a typical four-year-old child when it comes to broader insights and comprehension. It makes sense, then, that researchers at the University of Gothenburg have developed a program that imitates a child’s cognitive development. “We have developed a program that can learn, for example, basic arithmetic, logic, and grammar without any pre-existing knowledge,” says Claes Strannegård. Starting from a set of simple and broad definitions meant to provide a cognitive model, this program gradually builds new knowledge based on previous knowledge. From that new knowledge it then draws new conclusions about rules and relations that govern the world, and it identifies new patterns to connect the insight to. The process is similar to how children develop intelligence. A child can intuit, for example, that if 2 x 0 = 0 and 3 x 0 = 0 then 5 x 0 will also equal 0, or they could draw the conclusion that the next number in the series “2, 5, 8” will be 11. And the same kinds of intuition carry across to other areas, such as grammar, where it’s easy to identify rules for standard verb conjugations from examples like sing becoming sang and run becoming ran in the past tense. “We postulate that children learn everything based on experiences and that they are always looking for general patterns,” Strannegård says. (via Artificial intelligence program that learns like a child)

Artificial intelligence program that learns like a child
-
Artificial intelligence programs may already be capable of specialized tasks like flying planes, winning Jeopardy, and giving you a hard time in your favorite video games, but even the most advanced offerings are no smarter than a typical four-year-old child when it comes to broader insights and comprehension. It makes sense, then, that researchers at the University of Gothenburg have developed a program that imitates a child’s cognitive development. “We have developed a program that can learn, for example, basic arithmetic, logic, and grammar without any pre-existing knowledge,” says Claes Strannegård. Starting from a set of simple and broad definitions meant to provide a cognitive model, this program gradually builds new knowledge based on previous knowledge. From that new knowledge it then draws new conclusions about rules and relations that govern the world, and it identifies new patterns to connect the insight to. The process is similar to how children develop intelligence. A child can intuit, for example, that if 2 x 0 = 0 and 3 x 0 = 0 then 5 x 0 will also equal 0, or they could draw the conclusion that the next number in the series “2, 5, 8” will be 11. And the same kinds of intuition carry across to other areas, such as grammar, where it’s easy to identify rules for standard verb conjugations from examples like sing becoming sang and run becoming ran in the past tense. “We postulate that children learn everything based on experiences and that they are always looking for general patterns,” Strannegård says. (via Artificial intelligence program that learns like a child)

“Common-sense reasoning is a field of artificial intelligence that aims to help computers understand and interact with people more naturally by finding ways to collect these assumptions and teach them to computers. Common Sense Reasoning has been most successful in the field of natural language processing (NLP), though notable work has been done in other areas. This area of machine learning, with its strange name, is starting to quietly infiltrate different applications ranging from text understanding to processing and comprehending what’s in a photo. Without common sense, it will be difficult to build adaptable and unsupervised NLP systems in an increasingly digital and mobile world. …NLP is where common-sense reasoning excels, and the technology is starting to find its way into commercial products. Though there is still a long way to go, common-sense reasoning will continue to evolve rapidly in the coming years and the technology is stable enough to be in business use today. It holds significant advantages over existing ontology and rule-based systems, or systems based simply on machine learning.” Algorithms can make systems smarter, but without adding a little common sense into the equation they can still produce some pretty bizarre results.

Artificial Intelligence: How Algorithms Make Systems Smart | Innovation Insights | WIRED

What’s emerging from these studies isn’t just a theory of language or of metaphor. It’s a nascent theory of consciousness. Any algorithmic system faces the problem of bootstrapping itself from computing to knowing, from bit-shuffling to caring. Igniting previously stored memories of bodily experiences seems to be one way of getting there. And so may be the ability to create asymmetric neural linkages that say this is like (but not identical to) that. In an age of brain scanning as well as poetry, that’s where metaphor gets you.

Your Brain on Metaphors - The Chronicle Review - The Chronicle of Higher Education

If cognition is embodied, that raises problems for artificial intelligence. Since computers don’t have bodies, let alone sensations, what are the implications of these findings for their becoming conscious—that is, achieving strong AI? Lakoff is uncompromising: “It kills it.” Of Ray Kurzweil’s singularity thesis, he says, “I don’t believe it for a second.” Computers can run models of neural processes, he says, but absent bodily experience, those models will never actually be conscious.

Your Brain on Metaphors - The Chronicle Review - The Chronicle of Higher Education

"We know that blind evolutionary processes can produce human-level general intelligence, since they have already done so at least once," he writes. In other words, unless you believe that there is something magical (as opposed to merely fiendishly complicated) about how the brain works, the existence of humans is proof, in principle at least, that intelligent machines can be built.

Intelligent Machines And Human Life - Business Insider