A Momentary Flow

Updating Worldviews one World at a time

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321 posts tagged Brain

This story-making has a name. It’s called ‘confabulation’. In an ordinary, healthy brain, it tends to make us feel good about ourselves and the reality that we feel we’re at the centre of. Religion is a kind of confabulation. It’s a story that explains the origin of life and the universe while answering profound questions about death, loneliness and morality. Another story is the notion that your family is special, or that your political ideology is important. None of this is true. To insist we matter is to conduct a circular argument: people matter because they matter to people (in which case, if you got rid of all the people, it wouldn’t really matter). But we must believe these tales – and we do.

How a hero narrative can transform the self – Will Storr – Aeon
Neurons reveal the brain’s learning limit - Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh Original Study - Scientists have discovered a fundamental constraint in the brain that may explain why it’s easier to learn a skill that’s related to an ability you already have. For example, a trained pianist can learn a new melody easier than learning how to hit a tennis serve. As reported in Nature, the researchers found for the first time that there are limitations on how adaptable the brain is during learning and that these restrictions are a key determinant for whether a new skill will be easy or difficult to learn. Understanding how the brain’s activity can be “flexed” during learning could eventually be used to develop better treatments for stroke and other brain injuries. Lead author Patrick T. Sadtler, a Ph.D. candidate in the University of Pittsburgh department of bioengineering, compared the study’s findings to cooking. “Suppose you have flour, sugar, baking soda, eggs, salt, and milk. You can combine them to make different items—bread, pancakes, and cookies—but it would be difficult to make hamburger patties with the existing ingredients,” Sadtler says. “We found that the brain works in a similar way during learning. We found that subjects were able to more readily recombine familiar activity patterns in new ways relative to creating entirely novel patterns.” (via Neurons reveal the brain’s learning limit - Futurity)

Neurons reveal the brain’s learning limit
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Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh Original Study
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Scientists have discovered a fundamental constraint in the brain that may explain why it’s easier to learn a skill that’s related to an ability you already have. For example, a trained pianist can learn a new melody easier than learning how to hit a tennis serve. As reported in Nature, the researchers found for the first time that there are limitations on how adaptable the brain is during learning and that these restrictions are a key determinant for whether a new skill will be easy or difficult to learn. Understanding how the brain’s activity can be “flexed” during learning could eventually be used to develop better treatments for stroke and other brain injuries. Lead author Patrick T. Sadtler, a Ph.D. candidate in the University of Pittsburgh department of bioengineering, compared the study’s findings to cooking. “Suppose you have flour, sugar, baking soda, eggs, salt, and milk. You can combine them to make different items—bread, pancakes, and cookies—but it would be difficult to make hamburger patties with the existing ingredients,” Sadtler says. “We found that the brain works in a similar way during learning. We found that subjects were able to more readily recombine familiar activity patterns in new ways relative to creating entirely novel patterns.” (via Neurons reveal the brain’s learning limit - Futurity)

Mouse memories ‘flipped’ from fearful to cheerful
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By artificially activating circuits in the brain, scientists have turned negative memories into positive ones. They gave mice bad memories of a place, then made them good - or vice versa - without ever returning to that place. Neurons storing the “place” memory were re-activated in a different emotional context, modifying the association. Although unlikely to be applied in humans with traumatic memories, the work sheds new light on the details of how emotional memories form and change. The research is is published in the journal Nature. (via BBC News - Mouse memories ‘flipped’ from fearful to cheerful)

Mouse memories ‘flipped’ from fearful to cheerful
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By artificially activating circuits in the brain, scientists have turned negative memories into positive ones. They gave mice bad memories of a place, then made them good - or vice versa - without ever returning to that place. Neurons storing the “place” memory were re-activated in a different emotional context, modifying the association. Although unlikely to be applied in humans with traumatic memories, the work sheds new light on the details of how emotional memories form and change. The research is is published in the journal Nature. (via BBC News - Mouse memories ‘flipped’ from fearful to cheerful)

read of the day: This Is Your Brain on Silence - Contrary to popular belief, peace and quiet is all about the noise in your head. - One icy night in March 2010, 100 marketing experts piled into the Sea Horse Restaurant in Helsinki, with the modest goal of making a remote and medium-sized country a world-famous tourist destination. The problem was that Finland was known as a rather quiet country, and since 2008, the Country Brand Delegation had been looking for a national brand that would make some noise. Over drinks at the Sea Horse, the experts puzzled over the various strengths of their nation. Here was a country with exceptional teachers, an abundance of wild berries and mushrooms, and a vibrant cultural capital the size of Nashville, Tennessee. These things fell a bit short of a compelling national identity. Someone jokingly suggested that nudity could be named a national theme—it would emphasize the honesty of Finns. Someone else, less jokingly, proposed that perhaps quiet wasn’t such a bad thing. That got them thinking. A few months later, the delegation issued a slick “Country Brand Report.” It highlighted a host of marketable themes, including Finland’s renowned educational system and school of functional design. One key theme was brand new: silence. As the report explained, modern society often seems intolerably loud and busy. “Silence is a resource,” it said. It could be marketed just like clean water or wild mushrooms. “In the future, people will be prepared to pay for the experience of silence.” People already do. In a loud world, silence sells. Noise-canceling headphones retail for hundreds of dollars; the cost of some weeklong silent meditation courses can run into the thousands. Finland saw that it was possible to quite literally make something out of nothing.
go read.. (via This Is Your Brain on Silence - Issue 16: Nothingness - Nautilus)

read of the day: This Is Your Brain on Silence
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Contrary to popular belief, peace and quiet is all about the noise in your head.
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One icy night in March 2010, 100 marketing experts piled into the Sea Horse Restaurant in Helsinki, with the modest goal of making a remote and medium-sized country a world-famous tourist destination. The problem was that Finland was known as a rather quiet country, and since 2008, the Country Brand Delegation had been looking for a national brand that would make some noise. Over drinks at the Sea Horse, the experts puzzled over the various strengths of their nation. Here was a country with exceptional teachers, an abundance of wild berries and mushrooms, and a vibrant cultural capital the size of Nashville, Tennessee. These things fell a bit short of a compelling national identity. Someone jokingly suggested that nudity could be named a national theme—it would emphasize the honesty of Finns. Someone else, less jokingly, proposed that perhaps quiet wasn’t such a bad thing. That got them thinking. A few months later, the delegation issued a slick “Country Brand Report.” It highlighted a host of marketable themes, including Finland’s renowned educational system and school of functional design. One key theme was brand new: silence. As the report explained, modern society often seems intolerably loud and busy. “Silence is a resource,” it said. It could be marketed just like clean water or wild mushrooms. “In the future, people will be prepared to pay for the experience of silence.” People already do. In a loud world, silence sells. Noise-canceling headphones retail for hundreds of dollars; the cost of some weeklong silent meditation courses can run into the thousands. Finland saw that it was possible to quite literally make something out of nothing.

go read..
(via This Is Your Brain on Silence - Issue 16: Nothingness - Nautilus)

A smile is a peculiar thing. The upper lip lifts to expose the teeth. The cheeks bunch upward. The skin around the eyes crinkles. The 19th-century neurologist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne noticed that a cold, faked smile was often limited to the mouth, whereas a genuine, friendly one involved the eyes. That genuine smile is now called a Duchenne smile in his honour.

The origin of laughter, smiles and tears – Michael Graziano – Aeon

About four thousand years ago, somewhere in the Middle East — we don’t know where or when, exactly — a scribe drew a picture of an ox head. The picture was rather simple: just a face with two horns on top. It was used as part of an abjad, a set of characters that represent the consonants in a language. Over thousands of years, that ox-head icon gradually changed as it found its way into many different abjads and alphabets. It became more angular, then rotated to its side. Finally it turned upside down entirely, so that it was resting on its horns. Today it no longer represents an ox head or even a consonant. We know it as the capital letter A. The moral of this story is that symbols evolve.

The origin of laughter, smiles and tears – Michael Graziano – Aeon