A Momentary Flow

Updating Worldviews one World at a time

Tigers need diverse gene pool to surviveStanford University Original Study
 New research shows that increasing genetic diversity among the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet, though interbreeding and other methods, may be the key to their survival as a species. Iconic symbols of power and beauty, wild tigers may roam only in stories someday soon. Their historical range has been reduced by more than 90 percent. But conservation plans that focus only on increasing numbers and preserving distinct subspecies ignore genetic diversity, according to the study. In fact, following that approach, the tiger could vanish entirely. “Numbers don’t tell the entire story,” says Elizabeth Hadly, professor in environmental biology at Stanford University and senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. She is a coauthor of the study, which appears in the Journal of Heredity. That research shows that the more gene flow there is among tiger populations, the more genetic diversity is maintained and the higher the chances of species survival become. In fact, it might be possible to maintain tiger populations that preserve about 90 percent of genetic diversity. (via Tigers need diverse gene pool to survive | Futurity)

Tigers need diverse gene pool to survive
Stanford University Original Study


New research shows that increasing genetic diversity among the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet, though interbreeding and other methods, may be the key to their survival as a species. Iconic symbols of power and beauty, wild tigers may roam only in stories someday soon. Their historical range has been reduced by more than 90 percent. But conservation plans that focus only on increasing numbers and preserving distinct subspecies ignore genetic diversity, according to the study. In fact, following that approach, the tiger could vanish entirely. “Numbers don’t tell the entire story,” says Elizabeth Hadly, professor in environmental biology at Stanford University and senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. She is a coauthor of the study, which appears in the Journal of Heredity.
That research shows that the more gene flow there is among tiger populations, the more genetic diversity is maintained and the higher the chances of species survival become. In fact, it might be possible to maintain tiger populations that preserve about 90 percent of genetic diversity. (via Tigers need diverse gene pool to survive | Futurity)

Genes predispose obesity but it’s fullness that makes you fat  - A genetic predisposition to weight gain and obesity in later life can in part be explained by a lack of feeling full after eating, according to a new study in JAMA Paediatrics. Although there has been some study of why some people appear more likely to gain weight, researchers from UCL and King’s College London were interested in how 28 of the 34 identified “obesity genes” affected children. They found that although someone might be predisposed to becoming obese, it was also due to a tendency to eat more. In other words, predisposition doesn’t mean growing large is inevitable, and recognising it may help avoid overeating. “Our findings suggest that satiety responsiveness [how full we feel after eating] is one of the mechanisms through which obesity genes influence weight,” Clare Llewellyn, research associate in the Health Behaviour Research Centre at UCL and a co-author of the study said. “Obesity genes influence satiety responsiveness, and through influencing satiety responsiveness, they indirectly influence your weight … This study indicated that the reason why some people feel full and other don’t is due to differences in our genes.” The paper is based on the participants to the Twins Early Development Study – a long-term study into more than 16,000 pairs of twins born in the UK between 1994 and 1996. But rather than compare siblings, the researchers chose to study 2,258 participants who weren’t related. The average age of participants was nine. And they used a polygenic (multiple genes) risk score (PRS), which adds up the number of genetic variants someone has that puts them at increased risk of obesity. (via Genes predispose obesity but it’s fullness that makes you fat)

Genes predispose obesity but it’s fullness that makes you fat
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A genetic predisposition to weight gain and obesity in later life can in part be explained by a lack of feeling full after eating, according to a new study in JAMA Paediatrics. Although there has been some study of why some people appear more likely to gain weight, researchers from UCL and King’s College London were interested in how 28 of the 34 identified “obesity genes” affected children. They found that although someone might be predisposed to becoming obese, it was also due to a tendency to eat more. In other words, predisposition doesn’t mean growing large is inevitable, and recognising it may help avoid overeating. “Our findings suggest that satiety responsiveness [how full we feel after eating] is one of the mechanisms through which obesity genes influence weight,” Clare Llewellyn, research associate in the Health Behaviour Research Centre at UCL and a co-author of the study said. “Obesity genes influence satiety responsiveness, and through influencing satiety responsiveness, they indirectly influence your weight … This study indicated that the reason why some people feel full and other don’t is due to differences in our genes.” The paper is based on the participants to the Twins Early Development Study – a long-term study into more than 16,000 pairs of twins born in the UK between 1994 and 1996. But rather than compare siblings, the researchers chose to study 2,258 participants who weren’t related. The average age of participants was nine. And they used a polygenic (multiple genes) risk score (PRS), which adds up the number of genetic variants someone has that puts them at increased risk of obesity. (via Genes predispose obesity but it’s fullness that makes you fat)

World’s first green piglets born in China, sheep next
In Guangdong Province in Southern China, ten transgenic piglets have been born this year, in and under a black light, they glow a greenish tint. A technique developed by reproductive scientists from the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa’s John A. Burns School of Medicine was used to quadruple the success rate at which plasmids carrying a fluorescent protein from jellyfish DNA were transferred into the embryo of the pig. The green color is a marker that indicates that the fluorescent genetic material injected into the pig embryos has been incorporated into the animal’s natural make-up. The ultimate goal is to introduce beneficial genes into larger animals to create less costly and more efficient medicines. The IBR technique involves proprietary pmgenie-3 plasmids conferring active integration during cytoplasmic injection. This technique was also used to produce the world’s first “glowing green rabbits” in Turkey earlier this year. Turkey is expected to announce results of similar research involving sheep in the New Year. In the video below, the pigs — not unlike human children afraid of the dark — begin to squeal when the lights are turned off, except for the black light, which helps illuminate the green tint. The noise is because the scientists are holding the by-now-large piglets in a container to prevent their movement, to make the florescent glow most visible. (via World’s first green piglets born in China, sheep next | KurzweilAI)

World’s first green piglets born in China, sheep next

In Guangdong Province in Southern China, ten transgenic piglets have been born this year, in and under a black light, they glow a greenish tint. A technique developed by reproductive scientists from the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa’s John A. Burns School of Medicine was used to quadruple the success rate at which plasmids carrying a fluorescent protein from jellyfish DNA were transferred into the embryo of the pig. The green color is a marker that indicates that the fluorescent genetic material injected into the pig embryos has been incorporated into the animal’s natural make-up. The ultimate goal is to introduce beneficial genes into larger animals to create less costly and more efficient medicines. The IBR technique involves proprietary pmgenie-3 plasmids conferring active integration during cytoplasmic injection. This technique was also used to produce the world’s first “glowing green rabbits” in Turkey earlier this year. Turkey is expected to announce results of similar research involving sheep in the New Year. In the video below, the pigs — not unlike human children afraid of the dark — begin to squeal when the lights are turned off, except for the black light, which helps illuminate the green tint. The noise is because the scientists are holding the by-now-large piglets in a container to prevent their movement, to make the florescent glow most visible. (via World’s first green piglets born in China, sheep next | KurzweilAI)

Diabetes risk gene ‘from Neanderthals’
A gene variant that seems to increase the risk of diabetes in Latin Americans appears to have been inherited from Neanderthals, a study suggests.
We now know that modern humans interbred with a population of Neanderthals shortly after leaving Africa 60,000-70,000 years ago. This means that Neanderthal genes are now scattered across the genomes of all non-Africans living today. Details of the study appear in the journal Nature. The gene variant was detected in a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 8,000 Mexicans and other Latin Americans. The GWAS approach looks at many genes in different individuals, to see whether they are linked with a particular trait. People who carry the higher risk version of the gene are 25% more likely to have diabetes than those who do not, and people who inherited copies from both parents are 50% more likely to have diabetes. The higher risk form of the gene - named SLC16A11 - has been found in up to half of people with recent Native American ancestry, including Latin Americans. (via BBC News - Diabetes risk gene ‘from Neanderthals’)

Diabetes risk gene ‘from Neanderthals’

A gene variant that seems to increase the risk of diabetes in Latin Americans appears to have been inherited from Neanderthals, a study suggests.

We now know that modern humans interbred with a population of Neanderthals shortly after leaving Africa 60,000-70,000 years ago. This means that Neanderthal genes are now scattered across the genomes of all non-Africans living today. Details of the study appear in the journal Nature. The gene variant was detected in a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 8,000 Mexicans and other Latin Americans. The GWAS approach looks at many genes in different individuals, to see whether they are linked with a particular trait. People who carry the higher risk version of the gene are 25% more likely to have diabetes than those who do not, and people who inherited copies from both parents are 50% more likely to have diabetes. The higher risk form of the gene - named SLC16A11 - has been found in up to half of people with recent Native American ancestry, including Latin Americans. (via BBC News - Diabetes risk gene ‘from Neanderthals’)

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors
 Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias 
Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors. (via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors

Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias

Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors. (via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)

Harvey Fineberg: Are we ready for neo-evolution?

Medical ethicist Harvey Fineberg shows us three paths forward for the ever-evolving human species: to stop evolving completely, to evolve naturally — or to control the next steps of human evolution, using genetic modification, to make ourselves smarter, faster, better. Neo-evolution is within our grasp. What will we do with it?

(by TED)